In mid-1931 the Polish Cipher Bureau was formed by the merger of two units dealing with counterintelligence and cryptology – the Radio-Intelligence Office (Referat Radiowywiadu) and the Polish-Cryptography Office (Referat Szyfrów Własnych). The Bureau dealt with both cryptography, i.e. the production and supervision over the correct use of ciphers, as well as cryptology – studying of ciphers and codes, mainly for the purpose of breaking them. From the very beginning, the Bureau’s staff worked in four units: (1) own ciphers, (2) eastern radio intelligence, (3) Russian ciphers, and (4) dealing with German radio intelligence and ciphers.
The case of Pegasus, an Israeli software that allows various intelligence services in its possession worldwide to infect and take control over almost any device, returned again in mid-July 2021. According to the latest reports, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have used it extremely often, both to monitor their own citizens (particularly those critical of their own governments) as well as politicians of other countries, especially from Egypt and Iraq.
After Donald Trump ordered to build his famous wall, illegal traffic dropped by roughly 90 percent between 2019 and 2020 in Yuma, Arizona. It is not an isolated example of ad-hoc measures to counter modern border threats to state security. A slew of EU and NATO countries, including Lithuania, Estonia, and Hungary, followed suit.
The technology advancements of the last decade have transformed the competition between the US and China into a dispute concerning the control over global Internet infrastructure. As the geopolitics surrounding the 5G rollout intensify, technologically developing Eastern Europe has become a centre of the conflict. The Sino-American struggle over 5G networks in the region places Eastern European countries in a difficult position both in terms of geopolitical loyalties and technological and economic development.
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in decision-making systems and conventional solutions of the military is no longer surprising. What is eye-opening, however, is the possibility of using it without human supervision. When Deep Blue computer won a chess game against world champion Garry Kasparov in New York City in 1997, most experts perceived this event as a sign that AI is catching up with human intelligence.