The recent recognition of the 1915 massacre of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire as a genocide by the American President, was strongly opposed by the authorities in Ankara. In recent years, Turkey has been gradually distancing itself politically from the West, however, it remains the second military power and an important member of NATO. In the “post-Erdoğan” era, Turkey should be able to engage in the alliances of the Western world, anew, with a clean slate. Where are bilateral relationships among Ankara, Washington and other North Atlantic Alliance members headed?
The rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran is one of the principal factors that shape the image of the Middle East today. There are three key dimensions of it: religious (referring to the rivalry between its two most important denominations – Sunnism and Shiism, which is as old as Islam itself), economic (both countries are major crude oil exporters) and political (Riyadh and Tehran are considered regional powers that try to extend their influence. Naturally, this leads to a confrontation).
The early days One of the first or even the first group of Poles to come to North America were Polish craftsmen from the Jamestown Settlement. They arrived on American soil as early as 1608. This means that they have done it 12 years before the Pilgrim Fathers who...
Since 2014, the United States has allocated over $2 billion in security assistance to Ukraine. In the context of globally strained relations with Russia, the Biden administration continues to support the authorities in Kyiv to advance its Euro-Atlantic aspirations.
Since the beginning of its existence (1990), the Union of Poles in Belarus (UPB) was the key independent center which gathered people with Polish roots and those who spoke Polish. In Belarus, Poles constitute around 4% of the whole population and the UPB has 30,000 members, thus being one of the largest non-governmental organizations in this country. Its activities included educating children in Polish, publishing magazines in this language (for instance, Głos znad Niemna) as well as maintaining extensive contacts with Poland in cultural and social dimensions. Since Alexander Lukashenko came to power in 1994, some political pressure was put on the authorities of the UPB, which was accused of opposition activities. In the 2000s, the state administration accused the UPB of a lack of transparency – the statutory documents were prepared in Polish but were not translated into Belarusian. The government was also threatening that it would illegalize the Union.