August 30, 2021, when the last US Air Force aircraft took off from Kabul airport, marked the end of the nearly two-decade-long US intervention in Afghanistan.

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Video recording: How can civil society change the world?

Civil society is a form of activity, as well as a form of defining and achieving goals without an impulse from the state authorities. This is the conscious and autonomous participation of citizens in public life. Therefore, civil society is a set of ideas and forms of social self-organization in order to implement them.

Our weekly articles in „Dziennik Związkowy” – the largest Polish community journal in the USA

August 30, 2021, when the last US Air Force aircraft took off from Kabul airport, marked the end of the nearly two-decade-long US intervention in Afghanistan.

Law Enforcement Versus Cybercrime

Due to the intense activity of cyber criminals, authorities in many countries have long been looking for legal and technological solutions to effectively combat computer crime. The successful prosecution of cyber criminals faces numerous difficulties that have to be overcome in order to find and punish the perpetrators.

90 Years of the Polish Cipher Bureau

In mid-1931 the Polish Cipher Bureau was formed by the merger of two units dealing with counterintelligence and cryptology – the Radio-Intelligence Office (Referat Radiowywiadu) and the Polish-Cryptography Office (Referat Szyfrów Własnych). The Bureau dealt with both cryptography, i.e. the production and supervision over the correct use of ciphers, as well as cryptology – studying of ciphers and codes, mainly for the purpose of breaking them. From the very beginning, the Bureau’s staff worked in four units: (1) own ciphers, (2) eastern radio intelligence, (3) Russian ciphers, and (4) dealing with German radio intelligence and ciphers.